Earthquake is one of the biggest natural disasters. When an earthquake takes place, there is shaking on the surface of the earth at different degrees, thus collapsing life on earth. The aftermath of an earthquake is determined by the seismographic index reading that states the motion and the metric values of the impact an earthquake leaves. Seismometers are the ones used to measure the motion of the ground. Five major factors act as ill-effects that are caused as a result of an earthquake. While effects like fire and destruction to the human structure are all secondary, the primary ones are ground rupture, floods, liquefaction and landslides. So let us see all these factors in detail.
Ground Shaking and rupture:
Ground shaking is the first and the most immediate effect that happens when there is an earthquake. Depending on the intensity of the earthquake, it can simply stop with this motion or may proceed to ground rapture as well. In ground rapture, the impact of the earthquake leaves a crack in the ground. If the quake doesn’t end well, it might rupture the surface causing a larger cavity.
This is one of the dangerous after-effects of an earthquake. This predominantly happens in areas located around hills and mountains. In case of a landslide people near hilly areas are highly affected, and some serious landslides can also kill people and livestock in large numbers.
Floods and Tsunamis:
When the intensity of the earthquake is severe, it can break the dams and other similar reservoirs and this cause a flash flood. Floods are caused because the intensity was not bearable or the quality of the structure is not proper. But in case of Tsunamis, the story is different. Sometimes earthquakes can take place below the sea level, and as a result of ground rupture, a tsunami can follow it. A tsunami after an earthquake can sometimes be unavoidable the earthquake is quite intense.
Soil Liquefaction is quite similar to a landslide, but the impact is much worst. In soil liquefaction, the soil that is saturated or is in a semi-saturated state loosens going void of its strength. So soil that is present above the ground level will not be tight and intact. In this case, when an earthquake takes place, the loose soil will easily give in and will flow like a liquid. The result will be very much disastrous when there are structures built over such loose soil.
This is one of the rarest cases in the earthquake, and that is why it is considered as a secondary factor. Fire exploration and conflagration can take place only when the earthquake leaves a larger impact. This can either be a natural event or as a result of other man-made tools, that in the event of the earthquake might blast thus causing fire accidents and other events.